Differences Between Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA
Amount of DNA
One difference between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA is the amount of it. In the nucleus of cells, there is an estimated 70,000 genes, while there is about 37 genes in each mitochondria.
Another difference is when reproducing, nuclear DNA of one parent mixes with the nuclear DNA of the other parent, this is called diploid. MtDNA passes onto the offspring from only the mother, this is called haploid.
When looking at the structure, it is easily visible that nuclear DNA are in linear molecules, while mtDNA are in closed circular molecules. Also, nuclear DNA contains a nuclear genome while mtDNA contains a mitochondrial genome. Genome is the complete set of genetic material of an organism. One final difference in the structure is nuclear DNA contains three-billion nucleotides, and mtDNA only contains 16,569 nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA, they are made of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.